Vol. 1 No. 1 (2023)

  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 138

    Compozit structures Ba0.5Sr0.5Сo1−xFexO3−z, synthesized on the big solar furnace

    by M. S. Payzullakhanov, F. Ernazarov, O. Rajamatov, N. Karshieva, A. Holmatov

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.1, No.1, 2023; 191 Views, 177 PDF Downloads

    Anion-deficient structures based on the composition Sr 0.5 Ba 0.5 Со 1 − x Fe x O 3 − z synthesized from a melt in a solar furnace in a stream of concentrated solar radiation with a density of 100–200 W/cm 2 have been studied. Briquettes of the form of tablets based on a stoichiometric mixture of carbonates and oxides of the corresponding metals (SrСО 3 + BaСО 3 + Со 1 О 3 + Fe 2 O 3 ) were melted on the focal spot of the big solar furnace. Drops of the melt flowed into the water, cooling at a rate of 10 3 deg/s. Drops of the melt flowed into the water, cooling at a rate of 10 3 deg/s. The castings were crushed to a fineness of 63 µm, dried at 400 °C, molded into tablets (samples) (20 mm in diameter and 10 mm high). Samples of the material were sintered in the temperature range of 1050 °C–1250 °C. The structure, water absorption, and degradation in a carbon dioxide medium were studied in the samples. The crystal lattice of the material had a perovskite structure with a unit cell parameter a = 4.04 Å. The material samples showed increasing water absorption with increasing sintering temperatures. There is also a dependence on the resistance of the material structure to the effects of carbon dioxide and water vapor on the sintering temperature. The observed values of structural parameters indicate that the material based on the perovskite Sr 0.5 Ba 0.5 Со 1 − x Fe x O 3 − z structures can be used as a catalyst in the production of hydrogen and synthesis gas by reforming and methane oxidation. Preliminary experiments on obtaining synthesis gas showed that the perovskite structures of the composition are not inferior to phosphogypsum in terms of efficiency. However, the implementation of such approaches requires the development and creation of special equipment that makes it possible to control the flows of gases and water into the reaction chamber irradiated by a concentrated flux of high-density solar radiation.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 215

    Prefeasibility analysis of the Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) system in Türkiye: A case study on a hybrid system

    by Muhammed Fatih Saltuk

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.1, No.1, 2023; 90 Views, 90 PDF Downloads

    Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) power plants aim to exploit the price difference between storing and generating electricity. These power plants operate by pumping water from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir, consuming energy, and generating electricity by transferring water from the upper reservoir to the lower reservoir. There is no pumped storage power plant in Turkey yet, and it is in the planning stage. This study aims to provide a preliminary feasibility analysis of this investment from an economic and technical point of view and to contribute to this issue through the recently announced feed-in tariff for PHS. The planned PHS at Gökçekaya Dam was considered a proposal in this study and was carried out using a developed algorithm. The algorithm determines the optimal installed capacity of hybrid energy. This feasibility analysis is based on two scenarios. The difference between the first and second scenarios is due to the investment cost of the PHS system. Additionally, the second scenario considers an integrated hybrid Solar Hydroelectric (SHE) system. Each scenario is evaluated in terms of base price, average price, maximum feed-in price, and market peak price. The result of the study is that only the market price represents a remarkable payback period for pumped storage power plants. As a result of the study, it was found that it’s possible to support the pumped storage power plant with a hybrid solar power system and market price if only the storage volume is increased. The feed-in tariff should be set to cover the demand. In the first scenario, only the PHS was evaluated, and after completing the economic analysis, the investment has a payback period of 28.39 years for the market peak price. If the PHS facility is supported by a hybrid solar energy system for internal energy needs, the payback periods can be reduced. In the first scenario, the investment has a payback period of 18.05 years, supported by integrated hybrid solar energy. In the second scenario, the PHS investment has a payback period of 9.63 years for the highest price on the market. The investment has a payback period of 8.66 years, which is supported by the integrated hybrid solar energy. Due to the high self-consumption of energy, integrated hybrid solar energy is suitable for the PHS projects.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 214

    Estimation of the hourly solar radiation

    by Muhammed Fatih Saltuk

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.1, No.1, 2023; 112 Views, 119 PDF Downloads

    Hybrid facility investments from renewable energy sources have increased in recent years. In general, solar power is the secondary energy source in hybrid systems. The reason why solar energy is most commonly used in hybrid power systems is that it is cheaper than other types of renewable energy. Solar-Hydroelectric (SHE) is one of the foremost compatible hybrid energy pairs, as solar and hydroelectric power generation profiles complement one another. Hybrid systems consisting of solar and hydropower have complementary characteristics due to the shared use of infrastructure systems and different periodicities in power generation. Energy management is important for SHE-integrated facilities. Since only a limited amount of energy can be injected into the grid from transformer capacities, energy management in hybrid systems is of great importance. To manage energy in hybrid energy systems, the amount of energy that can be produced each hour must be determined. In hybrid energy plants, there is usually already another renewable energy plant in place, and solar energy is added on top and optimized. Since there are no pyrometers in the existing plants, the daily radiation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is used, but the daily energy production amount may be insufficient for accurate energy management. To realize this, it’s necessary to reveal the energy generation on an hourly basis. During this study, the quantity of radiation on an hourly basis was determined to calculate solar power generation. Empirical and econometric models utilized in radiation amount determination were performed, and the most appropriate method was clarified by comparing them with one another. Hourly-based radiation is achieved with an empirical method by using National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) daily radiation.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 351

    Integrating self-powered disaster recovery networks with environmental monitoring for enhanced disaster preparedness and response

    by Qutaiba I. Ali, Nawar A. Ibrahim

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.1, No.1, 2023; 72 Views, 85 PDF Downloads

    This paper investigates a comprehensive approach to enhancing environmental monitoring services within a self-powered Disaster Recovery Network (DRN) infrastructure. The study introduces a variety of solutions aimed at overcoming logistical challenges associated with establishing an environmentally conscious DRN infrastructure. Moreover, the research explores the intrinsic factors governing the system’s behavior, defines essential evaluation metrics, and delineates performance measurements. The Wireless Solar Router (WSR) is specifically introduced using the Ubicom IP 2022 platform to realize the Ad hoc wirelessly networked nodes of the DRN infrastructure. To advance the field further, the paper proposes an experimental platform for comprehensive evaluation, assessing network performance, practicality, power efficiency, and resilience to various scenarios. A comprehensive design process is illustrated, and the required values of the system elements, i.e., the number of solar cell panels, the capacity of the battery cells, etc., are adjusted to fulfill the design purposes. In order to reduce the power utilization of the recommended WSR and to lengthen the duration of their batteries, a new distributed power management scheme called Duty Cycle Estimation-Event Driven Duty Cycling (DCE-EDDC) was suggested and installed locally in the WSRs in order to decrease their power consumption and extend the lifetime of their batteries. The suggested method is compared with other duty cycling methods, and the proposed DRN system is also compared with other real-world implementations to show its usefulness in building a green DRN infrastructure.

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  • Open Access

    Review

    Article ID: 275

    Research progress on hydroxide fluoride-based electrode materials for supercapacitors

    by Zijin Xu, Zeshuo Meng

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.1, No.1, 2023; 171 Views, 83 PDF Downloads

    Supercapacitors have attracted much attention due to their high-power density and long cycle life, making them a potential substitute for traditional batteries. Research on hydroxide fluorides as electrode materials for supercapacitors has been increasing. Hydroxide fluorides exhibit higher specific capacitance due to the redox reactions between transition metal elements in different oxidation states. However, their high resistance limits their rate performance and cycling stability, which hinders their large-scale application. This article summarizes the main synthesis methods of hydroxide fluorides, and by controlling the reaction conditions, hydroxide fluorides with different morphologies and structures can be obtained to meet various application requirements. In addition, considering the limitations of hydroxide fluorides, this article systematically introduces the main approaches to improving their electrode performance and summarizes the electrochemical characteristics and latest research progress of hydroxide fluorides.

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  • Open Access

    Review

    Article ID: 304

    On efficiencies, emissions, and the colors of hydrogen—An update

    by Rudolf Holze

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.1, No.1, 2023; 78 Views, 39 PDF Downloads

    Compared with electricity, more precisely electric energy, hydrogen as a secondary form of energy, an energy carrier, an energy storage material, and a chemical reagent are of growing importance. This change is driven mostly by ecological reasons, with hydrogen replacing fossil fuels and materials and finally reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. It is also relevant because of its conceivable use as an energy carrier in transportation. This update starts with a brief collection of common definitions and terminology and moves across a critical assessment of common misunderstandings towards current and future uses of hydrogen to future perspectives with a particular focus on efficiency.

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