Vol. 2 No. 2 (2024)

  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 369

    Nitrided copper-iron composite oxides derived from layered double hydroxides for enhanced carbon dioxide electroreduction to methane and formic acid

    by Dian Song, Jinqing He, Yiping Wang, Xuhui Zhao, Fazhi Zhang, Xiaodong Lei

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 153 Views, 121 PDF Downloads

    The reduction of carbon dioxide into valuable chemical products is a promising solution to address carbon balance and energy issues. Herein, amorphous nitrided copper-iron oxides are prepared by gas-phase nitriding of CuFe-layered double hydroxide precursors with urea as a nitrogen source. The obtained materials show high activity for CO 2 electroreduction to methane and formic acid, achieving a total Faraday efficiency of 74.7% at −0.7 V vs. RHE and exhibiting continuous 10 h durability in the H-cell. The uniformly distributed Cu+ sites act as active sites by losing electrons to activate CO 2 . During the CO 2 electroreduction, CO 2 is converted to *COOH via proton-electron coupling; *COOH combines directly with a proton in solution to produce the HCOOH product; and the other part of *COOH undergoes a protonated dehydration process to form the *CHO intermediate, which dehydrates again to form CH 4 . This study provides a new approach for designing CO 2 electroreduction catalysts.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1151

    AlZnO magnetron sputtered thin film for photovoltaic application

    by Zohreh Ghorannevis, Mehran Jamalpourkolour, Arash Boochani, Arash Yari, Nosratali Vahabzadeh, Parnia Goudarzi

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 116 Views, 64 PDF Downloads

    Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) is a nontoxic and low-cost material that finds application as a transparent conducting electrode in photovoltaic devices. In this study, the (direct current) DC magnetron sputtering of AZO films is carried out at different deposition times of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min’s at room temperature, and its structural, optical, electrical, and morphological properties are studied for its use as a front contact for thin film solar cell application. The structural study suggests that the preferred orientation of grains along the (002) plane has a hexagonal structure, and the optical and electrical studies suggest that the films show an average transmission of 70% and a resistivity of the order of 10 -4 Ω cm. On the other hand, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggest the formation of packed grains with a homogeneous surface. Moreover, in order to study the optoelectronic properties of prepared samples, the electronic and optical calculations of the AZO are performed by the first-principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT).

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 309

    Experimental exploration of nano-phase change material composites for thermal management in Lithium-ion batteries

    by Vishnu M., Anooplal B., Rajesh Baby

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 70 Views, 55 PDF Downloads

    The present study reports an experimental investigation carried out for the thermal management of cylindrical lithium-ion battery simulators using aluminum oxide (nano particle)-eicosane (phase change material) composites. The experiment involves varying the power input from 4 to 10 W in 2 W increments and adjusting the weight percentage of nanoparticles (wt%) from 0.5 to 0.9 in 0.2 wt% intervals. The examination of battery temperature evolutions in response to heating power, a comprehensive heat transfer analysis incorporating the Nusselt number, the determination of the maximum temperature difference, thermal resistance analysis, and the exploration of temperature variations in the absence of Phase Change Material (PCM) are considered. The results show that an increase in the weight percentage of alumina nanoparticles in phase-change material cannot always improve the thermal performance. The results of the present study give guidelines for designing battery thermal management systems. The power levels used in the experiment vary from 4 W to 10 W in steps of 2 W. For a power level of 4 W, the heat flux is 1.088 kW/m 2 , and for a power level of 10 W, the heat flux is 2.72 kW/m 2 .

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1321

    Investigation of self-excited induction generator for supporting domestic loads and its extension to a microgrid

    by Arunava Chatterjee

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 76 Views, 46 PDF Downloads

    This study provides a technical and financial analysis for the incorporation of a microgrid structure with a wind energy conversion system for producing electricity. This study’s primary aim is to provide solutions for issues that arise when isolated induction generators are employed with microgrids. A closed-loop smart electronic load controller is used to regulate the loads in the system that are supplied by the generator. A switched variable capacitor bank is used to supply reactive power initially during a voltage dip at varying winds and loads to sustain the voltage profile. Additionally, a simple voltage control loop-based controller for the generator-side converter maintains the voltage at a steady level. Using HOMER software, an economic study of the suggested wind-based microgrid structure is also presented. A laboratory experimental setup is used to support the MATLAB/Simulink study of the proposed method and its control. The findings support the feasibility of implementing the suggested plan in grid-isolated regions for supplying critical loads.

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  • Open Access

    Review

    Article ID: 523

    Research progress on ZnO/MoS2/rGO ternary photocatalysts

    by Runlin Zhang, Weiwei Yang, Qiuyu Chen, Zhengyan Du, Zeshuo Meng

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 115 Views, 73 PDF Downloads

    Energy shortages and environmental pollution have become one of the important global issues, and semiconductor photocatalytic technology is considered one of the most effective means to solve these problems. As a new and efficient green material, ZnO has attracted wide attention. ZnO is widely used in the field of photocatalysis due to its non-toxicity, low cost, environmental friendliness, adjustable band gap, high electron density, and chemical stability. However, the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in ZnO hinders its practical application and lowers the utilization efficiency of visible light. On the other hand, molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide (MoS 2 /rGO), as a binary non-precious metal co-catalyst, has a larger specific surface area, suitable band gap width, and visible light response capability compared to a single-phase graphene co-catalyst. Therefore, introducing the MoS 2 /rGO co-catalyst into the ZnO system can provide more active sites, reduce the probability of photogenerated charge carrier recombination, and improve the utilization efficiency of visible light. In this review, we summarize the hydrothermal synthesis methods for preparing this highly demanded nanocomposite material, including one-step and stepwise methods. Subsequently, we elaborate on the mechanism of enhancing light absorption and achieving efficient electron-hole separation behavior in the ternary system heterojunction structure during the photocatalytic process. Due to its significant advantages, this ternary system heterojunction structure has been widely applied in the field of photocatalysis, including applications such as pollutant degradation, sterilization, and water splitting.

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  • Open Access

    Review

    Article ID: 538

    Wind power forecasting technologies: A review

    by Krishan Kumar, Priti Prabhakar, Avnesh Verma

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 141 Views, 70 PDF Downloads

    This study addresses the critical role of wind power forecasting in ensuring stable and reliable power system operations. Wind power forecasting is critical for the efficient operation of plants, time scheduling, and the balancing of power generation with grid integration systems. Due to its dependency on dynamic climatic conditions and associated factors, accurate wind power forecasting is challenging. The research delves into various aspects, including input data, input selection techniques, data pre-processing, and forecasting methods, with the aim of motivating researchers to design highly efficient online/offline models on weather-based data. The overarching goal is to enhance the reliability and stability of power systems while optimizing energy resource utilization. The analysis reveals that hybrid models offer more accurate results, highlighting their significance in the current era. This study investigates different Wind Power Forecasting (WPF) models from existing literature, focusing on input variables, time horizons, climatic conditions, pre-processing techniques, and sample sizes that affect model accuracy. It covers statistical models like ARMA and ARIMA, along with AI techniques including Deep Learning (DL), Machine Learning (ML), and neural networks, to estimate wind power.

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  • Open Access

    Review

    Article ID: 1136

    Chemical material as a hydrogen energy carrier: A review

    by Yunji Kim, Heena Yang

    Energy Storage and Conversion, Vol.2, No.2, 2024; 88 Views, 49 PDF Downloads

    In light of climate change imperatives, there is a critical need for technological advancements and research endeavors towards clean energy alternatives to replace conventional fossil fuels. Additionally, the development of high-capacity energy storage solutions for global transportability becomes paramount. Hydrogen emerges as a promising environmentally sustainable energy carrier, devoid of carbon dioxide emissions and possessing a high energy density per unit mass. Its versatile applicability spans various sectors, including industry, power generation, and transportation. However, the commercialization of hydrogen necessitates further technological innovations. Notably, high-pressure compression for hydrogen storage presents safety challenges and inherent limitations in storage capacity, resulting in about 30%–50% loss of hydrogen production. Consequently, substantial research endeavors are underway in the domain of material-based chemical hydrogen storage that causes reactions to occur at temperatures below 200 ℃. This approach enables the utilization of existing infrastructure, such as fossil fuels and natural gas, while offering comparatively elevated hydrogen storage capacities. This study aims to introduce recent investigations concerning the synthesis and decomposition mechanisms of chemical hydrogen storage materials, including methanol, ammonia, and Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC).

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