Vol. 2 No. 1 (2024)

The interdisciplinary nature of mathematical research and its association with diverse fields is a topic of great interest in the field. In this issue, we aim to provide valuable insights into the innovative intersections of mathematics with real-world applications, showcasing the versatility and impactful nature of mathematical research. Spanning domains such as quantum mechanics, music theory, pattern recognition, data analysis, and nonlinear equations, this issue seeks to explore the diverse applications of mathematical principles. We trust that this collection of papers will offer readers a deeper appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of mathematical research and its potential to drive meaningful advancements across a variety of fields.

  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 382

    Random vector representation of continuous functions and its applications in quantum mechanics

    by Hong-Xing Li, Wei Zhou, Hong-Hai Mi

    Journal of AppliedMath, Vol.2, No.1, 2024; 97 Views, 100 PDF Downloads

    The relation between continuous functions and random vectors is revealed in the paper. The main meaning is described as: for any given continuous function, there must be a sequence of probability spaces and a sequence of random vectors where every random vector is defined on one of these probability spaces, such that the sequence of conditional mathematical expectations formed by the random vectors uniformly converges to the continuous function. This is a random vector representation of continuous functions, which is regarded as a bridge to be set up between real function theory and probability theory. By means of this conclusion, an interesting result about function approximation theory can be obtained. The random vector representation of continuous functions has important applications in physics. Based on the conclusion, if a large proportion of certainty phenomena can be described by continuous functions and random phenomena can also be described by random variables or vectors, then any certainty phenomenon must be the limit state of a sequence of random phenomena. Then, in the approximation from a sequence of random vectors to a continuous function, the base functions are appropriately selected by us, and an important conclusion for quantum mechanics is deduced: classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are unified. Particularly, an interesting and very important conclusion is introduced as the fact that the mass point motion of a macroscopical object possesses a kind of wave characteristic curve, which is called wave-mass-point duality.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 281

    Hindustani classical music revisited statistically: Does the order of Markov chain in the note dependence depend on the raga or the composition?

    by Soubhik Chakraborty, Aiman Habib, Prerna Singh

    Journal of AppliedMath, Vol.2, No.1, 2024; 89 Views, 61 PDF Downloads

    Rendering musical notes randomly does not create music. To generate music, there has to be a pattern that makes the musical notes dependent. It is therefore of interest to know whether the probability of the next note depends on the current note only or whether it depends on the note(s) prior to the current note. In other words, it is important to explore the order of the Markov chain in the musical piece. In the context of Hindustani classical music, does this order depend on the raga or the composition? The present work addresses this fascinating question and attempts to answer it through Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). It appears, interestingly, that the order of the Markov chain is dependent on the raga, which has a well-defined melodic structure with fixed notes and a set of rules characterizing a particular mood that is conveyed by performance. As long as these rules are maintained, as in a raga bandish, the order of the Markov chain is invariant over the raga compositions.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 373

    Enhancing handwritten numeric string recognition through incremental support vector machines

    by Rani Kurnia Putri, Muhammad Athoillah

    Journal of AppliedMath, Vol.2, No.1, 2024; 96 Views, 103 PDF Downloads

    Handwritten digit recognition systems are integral to diverse applications such as postal services, banking, and document processing in our digitally-driven society. This research addresses the challenges posed by evolving datasets and dynamic scenarios in handwritten digit recognition by proposing an approach based on incremental support vector machines (ISVM). ISVM is an extension of traditional support vector machines (SVM) designed to handle scenarios where new data points become available over time. The dataset includes handwritten images (numbers “0” to “6”) and trials introducing new classes (“7”, “8”, and “9”). Evaluation utilizes k-fold cross-validation for robustness. Digital image processing involves converting images into numeric data using the histogram method. The result showed the positive outcomes of using ISVM in handwritten digit recognition, emphasizing its adaptability to incremental learning and its ability to maintain robust performance in the face of evolving datasets, which is crucial for real-world applications.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 424

    Topological analysis of multiple tables

    by Rafik Abdesselam

    Journal of AppliedMath, Vol.2, No.1, 2024; 85 Views, 61 PDF Downloads

    The paper proposes a topological approach in order to explore several data tables simultaneously. These data tables of quantitative and/or qualitative variables measured on different homogeneous themes, collected from the same individuals. This approach, called topological analysis of multiple tables (TAMT), is based on the notion of neighborhood graphs in the context of a joint analysis of several data tables. It allows the simultaneous study of possible links between several thematic tables. The structure of the correlations or associations of the variables in each thematic table is analyzed according to the quantitative, qualitative, or mixed variables considered. Like multiple factorial analysis (MFA), the TAMT allows several tables of variables to be analyzed simultaneously, and to obtain results, in particular graphical representations, which make it possible to study the relationship between individuals, variables, and tables of data. These can also be tables of temporal data, collected at different times on the same individuals. The proposed TAMT approach is illustrated using real data associated with several different homogeneous themes. Its results are compared to those from the MFA method.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 477

    A new optimal iterative algorithm for solving nonlinear equations

    by Dhyan R. Gorashiya, Rajesh C. Shah

    Journal of AppliedMath, Vol.2, No.1, 2024; 70 Views, 53 PDF Downloads

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new iterative algorithm (scheme or method) for solving algebraic and transcendental equations, considering a fixed point and an initial guess value on the x -axis. The concepts of the slope of a line and the Taylor series are used in the derivation. The algorithm has second-order convergence and requires two function evaluations in each step, which shows that it is optimal with a computational efficiency index of 1.414 and an informational efficiency of 1. The validity of the algorithm is examined by solving some examples and their comparisons with Newton’s method.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 465

    Conformal theory of central surface density for galactic dark halos

    by R. K. Nesbet

    Journal of AppliedMath, Vol.2, No.1, 2024; 62 Views, 32 PDF Downloads

    Numerous dark matter studies of galactic halo gravitation depend on models with a core radius of r 0 and a central density of ρ 0 . The central surface density product ρ 0 r 0 is found to be nearly a universal constant for a large range of galaxies. Standard variational field theory with Weyl conformal symmetry postulated for gravitation and the Higgs scalar field, without dark matter, implies nonclassical centripetal acceleration , for a = a N + , where Newtonian acceleration a N is due to observable baryonic matter. Neglecting a halo cutoff at a very large galactic radius, conformal  is constant over the entire halo, and a = a N +  is a universal function, consistent with a recent study of galaxies with independently measured mass, that constrains acceleration due to dark matter or to an alternative theory. An equivalent dark matter source would be a pure cusp distribution with a cutoff parameter determined by a halo boundary radius. This is shown to imply a universal central surface density for any dark matter core model.

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