ISSN: 2705-0602 (Online)

   ISSN: 2705-0610 (Print)

   Journal Abbreviation: Forum Linguist. Stud.

   Publication Frequency: The publication frequency of Forum for Linguistic Studies is quarterly.

   Publishing Model: Open Access

 

About the Journal

Forum for Linguistic Studies (FLS) is an international, peer-reviewed journal published by Academic Publishing Pte. Ltd. FLS aims at publishing the latest research results in general and applied linguistics as well as philosophy of language. The journal caters to a comprehensive audience, ranging from language researchers, linguists, teachers, educationalists, practitioners and those with a general interest in language and linguistics.

FLS aims to encourage the free exchange of information between researchers by being a forum for the constructive discussion and debate of issues in both theoretical and applied research.

FLS welcomes submissions in the form of original articles, review articles, book reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters, perspectives, reports, etc. Papers based on the findings of corpus or experiment-oriented researches are particularly welcomed.

Examples of relevant topics are:

  1. Phonology
  2. Syntax
  3. Semantics
  4. Pragmatics
  5. Cognitive-functional linguistic topics
  6. Dialogic studies
  7. Language teaching/acquisition/policy
  8. Philosophy of language
  9. Linguistic landscape

Latest Articles

  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1114

    Bibliometric analysis and visualization of translation assessment: Research theme, evolution and hotspots

    by Dai Tao, Lin Siew Eng

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 210 Views, 168 PDF Downloads

    Translation assessment, referring to evaluating various aspects related to translation, is crucial to the improvement of translation competence and quality. This study, taking valid papers on translation assessment published in WoS core collection from 2000 to 2022 as research samples, visualizes and reviews the research theme, research evolutions and emerging hot topics of translation assessment through bibliometric analysis. The number of annual publications shows that despite the general growth, the number of articles on translation assessment fluctuates from year to year. By Cite Space-based analysis of keywords co-occurrence, keyword clustering, time zone and burst detection, it finds that translation assessment mainly covers five themes, namely translation competence, translation quality, machine translation, translation teaching and training, and others. The overall evolution has been a gradual shift from concepts, metrics and evaluations of topics related to translation assessment into a topic of in-depth and interdisciplinary study. The hotspots in recent years include translation competence acquisition, neural machine translation and translation quality estimation. The findings reveal research evolutions and hot spots, propose implications for further translation assessment research and provide references for scholars who are interested in this topic.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1115

    Beyond the written word: Investigating Post-Colonial identity through ballooned words and drawn texts in Sarnath Banerjee’s graphic novels

    by Jerusha Angelene Christabel Godwin, Shilaja C. L.

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 136 Views, 96 PDF Downloads

    This study delves into the unique narrative style of graphic novelist Sarnath Banerjee, focusing on his depiction of post-colonial identity in a modern, multilingual Indian context. It examines how Banerjee utilizes both phonetic elements and text to express this theme. Contrary to the perception of comics as trivial, this paper argues that they effectively blend visual and verbal elements, creating multimodal texts where various semiotic elements contribute significantly to meaning-making. Banerjee’s work, characterized as rhizomatic, employs a hybrid symbolic system to navigate the complex postmodern and postcolonial landscape of India. He does so through the use of symbolic, emblematic, and indexical features, which are integral in articulating these societal tensions.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1169

    Mapping translation process research: A bibliographic study on special issues since year 2005

    by Xiaodong Liu

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 110 Views, 85 PDF Downloads

    This paper investigates recent developments in translation process research (TPR) as an emerging sub-discipline of descriptive translation studies by surveying articles published from 2005–2019 in special issues of eight major translation/linguistic journals. The overall trend in the field is first presented, followed by a systematic analysis of the articles in terms of authorship, regional distribution, themes, and methodology. To perform the thematic analysis, a three-layer classification system was developed, which includes the type of translation tasks, the type of study (theoretical/review or data-based research articles), and specific topics addressed in each article. This article presents distribution within each category and sub-category, followed by a discussion of trends and future research directions. The major findings are: 1) 61.36% of the articles in the database were single authored while UK and Spain had the highest number of authored publications; 2) 77.27% of the articles focused on written translation tasks, and 34.09% of the research articles were dedicated to new topics in TPR; 3) 59.38% of the publications employed more than one research method. The outcomes of this study allow future researchers investigating translation processes, such as the specific and in-depth analysis of theoretical models and the combined use of experimental and naturalistic methods, to expand the research landscape and pursue new methodological innovations.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1181

    Unveiling students test strategizing through the lens of Monitor Theory: Teaching insights

    by Abdullah A. Al Fraidan

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 108 Views, 90 PDF Downloads

    This paper explores the integration of Monitor Theory into the design and implementation of Test-Taking Strategy (TTS) instruction tasks. It critically analyzes the landscape of language test-taking strategies, addressing key issues such as the advisability of explicit teaching, methods for identification, and the impact of less beneficial strategies. Advocating for the teaching of test-taking strategies, the paper recommends the Monitor Theory as an optimal model for pedagogical integration. The exploration aims to provide valuable insights for refining language assessment practices, ensuring alignment with the principles of language acquisition. The content-independent nature of these strategies maintains test validity, offering students opportunities for more comprehensible input and enhancing critical thinking. It proposes a model that emphasizes natural language use, acquisition through natural inference, and feedback mechanisms to enhance language learning and test performance. Practical strategies such as interactive test reviews, critical thinking tasks, and real-world applications are suggested to optimize TTS instruction. By linking test-taking strategies with the acquisition-learning hypothesis, this paper offers a comprehensive approach to optimizing language assessment practices and promoting holistic language development. The discussion underscores the importance of authentic learning experiences, learner autonomy, and comprehensive coaching interventions in fostering genuine understanding and proficiency in language assessment contexts.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1172

    The effect of team teaching on Iranian ESP learners reading comprehension

    by Aliasghar Ahmadishokouh, Naser Janani, Hadi Sadeghi

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 91 Views, 67 PDF Downloads

    This article defines team teaching as a teaching approach that utilizes the expertise and instructional capabilities of distinct educators to enrich the process of learning. Team teaching refers to an instructional strategy that involves the collaborative efforts of multiple teachers who jointly plan, deliver, and assess the learning experiences of a group of students. This approach integrates the diverse knowledge, skills, and perspectives of the participating educators to create a more comprehensive and engaging educational environment. This paper has examined the use of team teaching as a means of enhancing reading comprehension of English for specific purposes in Iranian context. A number of 100 intermediate-level ESP students in Iran participated in this study. They were divided to two groups, control group with 50 students and experimental group with 50 ones. Team teaching or collaborative teaching strategy was used for experimental group. For control group individual teaching or none collaborative teaching was employed. The data obtained from the study was given to SPSS software. Statistical procedure appropriate for this study was analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results of the study showed that in comparison with individual or none collaborative teaching, collaborative or team teaching has a better effect on Iranian ESP learners reading comprehension. It is also found that multilevel class has positive effect on learning language skills.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1178

    The implementation of differentiated learning in ELT: Indonesian teachers’ readiness

    by Nina Sofiana, Santi Andriyani, Muh Shofiyuddin, Husni Mubarok, Olyvia Revalita Candraloka

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 185 Views, 104 PDF Downloads

    In responding to the curriculum change in Indonesia to the Merdeka (Freedom) curriculum, the teaching and learning process should emphasize differentiated learning, including English Language Teaching (ELT). Despite the fact the teachers must implement it in their class, little research has examined the teachers’ readiness and its affecting factors in implementing differentiated learning. This study aims to address this gap by exploring teachers’ readiness in applying it and the factors affecting their readiness, by administering questionnaires and interviewing sixty public-school teachers of senior high schools who enrolled in the Subject Teacher Deliberation (STD) of English, in Central Java, Indonesia. The findings indicated that teachers were not ready in implementing content and process differentiation in ELT, but they just needed some improvements. Additionally, teachers had been ready in applying product and learning environment differentiation, but they still need a little enhancement. The factors affecting their readiness included insufficient training opportunities, limited time for planning and designing learning activities, difference of students’ readiness in learning English, and the large number of students in each class. Furthermore, the study recommends that the Indonesian government should provide additional training and workshops for teachers, establish a clear and consistent guideline for differentiated learning, and facilitating collaboration and communication among teachers to share their best practice.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1203

    A forensic pragmatic analysis of defamatory statements in Iraqi criminal courts

    by Asaad Qahtan Najm Aljanabi, Ahmed Sahib Jabir

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 46 Views, 54 PDF Downloads

    This paper is going to investigate the defamatory statements that are posted on social media platforms and those statements are considered as a language crime that is usually recognized as a linguistic act. Defamatory statements can be expressed in different ways, including written and spoken words, gestures, or other ways of communication. Consequently, persons who defame others usually base their speech on the words and expressions that constitute their accusation. This paper aims to analyze the language of defamatory messages, which must not only be false but also transmitted to other individuals with the intent of causing harm to the reputation of the targeted person. It also describes how linguists can provide help in defamation cases by applying Shuy’s model to investigate the linguistic tools of speech acts, grammatical referencing, discourse structure, malicious language, and the conveyed and intended meaning of the defamatory messages. The data, which are cases, have been collected from The Criminal Court and The Femidemora Court in Babylon.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1204

    An appraisal of recurring grammar errors in Saudi premedical EFL learners’ academic writing

    by Mahboobeh Khaleghi, Mohammad Saleem, Mozaffar Mansoor, Mohammad Abdul Wajid

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 65 Views, 42 PDF Downloads

    The present research is a qualitative study investigating a potential relationship between explicit grammar instruction to adult EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners and the development of their writing skill. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach discourages explicit teaching of grammar at all levels as the theoretical premise in the approach is that learners are capable of imbibing grammar rules implicit in communication. However, adult EFL learners, taught English through CLT as an approach, are observed to make grammar errors in their writing, though they made progress in spoken English. In a qualitative study conducted with premedical students at a university in Saudi Arabia, the researchers find that explicit teaching of a few difficult-to-grasp grammar rules is required to improve learners’ writing skill since academic writing requires an advanced knowledge of grammar. A comparative analysis of learners’ writing samples and spoken English transcriptions showed that learners made numerous grammatical errors in their writings while the same group of learners made satisfactory progress in oral communication in English, despite making a few accent errors. The findings of the present research suggest that concerned EFL teachers need to make accommodations for grammar within communicative approach to explain certain grammar points explicitly, especially to adult learners, to take care of their writing skill, along with developing their communicative skills.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1205

    The effectiveness of a school-based phonics instructional material

    by Minjie Chen, Guojie Yin, Wei Lun Wong, Mohamad Syafiq Ya Shak, Mairas Abdul Rahman, Mei Chew Lee

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 43 Views, 35 PDF Downloads

    The updated version of the national English curriculum for compulsory education was released in 2022. In this updated version, phonics was also required. Although studies about phonics were uprising again after the release of the new curriculum, most of the previous studies did not specify phonics instruction approach or obtain a larger sample size. Besides, previous studies called for a school-based phonics instructional material to enhance English as a foreign language (EFL) beginners’ word recognition ability at word level. To bridge the gap, the researchers compiled a phonics instructional material based on synthetic phonics approach in light of the new national English curriculum and bottom-up reading model. To evaluate the effectiveness of such a phonics material, a number of 366 EFL students from three strata across two schools participated in this quasi-experiment via stratified random sampling technique. They experienced a pre-test, 16 weeks of training via the phonics material, a post-test as well as a delayed retention test, which was held three months later. The results of both independent t -test and paired samples t-test have indicated that the newly compiled phonics material can improve EFL students’ word recognition ability up to 50% and that the knowledge was well-retained after a period of time as practices went on. The results have further implied that to better implement phonics instruction and to radically improve EFL students’ reading ability, the solution might be to assign time in the extra-curriculum service to teach phonics via explicit and systematic synthetic phonics instruction tailored according to the school-based phonics material.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1206

    First language interference in speaking and writing Indonesian language of Azerbaijani students in Indonesian language course at Azerbaijan University of Languages

    by Nabiyya Zarbali, Suroso Suroso, Kastam Syamsi

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 63 Views, 39 PDF Downloads

    This study examines the issue of first language interference in spoken and written Indonesian by Azerbaijani students who are taking an Indonesian language course at Azerbaijan University of Languages. The study is framed within the context of bilingualism, where first language interference occurs when individuals learn a foreign language. The aim of this research is to identify the types and causes of interference displayed by Azerbaijani-speaking students when using Indonesian language, with a focus on speaking and writing during classroom activities. A descriptive qualitative approach was used to collect data through observation and documentation, including oral recordings and written assignments. Analysis revealed that Azerbaijani students face pronunciation, morphology, and syntax challenges due to interference based on Weinreich’s theory. Pronunciation challenges arise from the lack of the phonetic sound [ê] in Azerbaijani, resulting in substitutions with [é]. Morphological complexities arise from the unfamiliarity with prefixes in Azerbaijani, making it difficult to transform active sentences into passive structures. Syntactic challenges arise due to the differing sentence structures between Azerbaijani (S-O-P-C) and Indonesian (S-P-O-C). To mitigate interference, it is recommended to include targeted phonological drills, increased morphological exercises, and enhanced syntactic practice to facilitate a smoother language acquisition journey for Azerbaijani students who are mastering Indonesian language.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1159

    Reduplication in old Armenian and its functional implementations (experience of comparative diachronic analysis)

    by L. M. Khachatryan, V. V. Madoyan

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 62 Views, 57 PDF Downloads

    The reduplication in the Indo-European languages has been studied quite thoroughly both in connection with the issues of the origin and development of the language, and with the issues of assessing their functional content. Regarding the latter, scientists are more inclined to believe that this is due to the reproduction of child’s or imperfect speech. The article examines the reduplicates in the Armenian language, which is central to the territory of settlement of the Indo-Europeans. Using the example of the translation of the Bible, the authors show that only in Armenian the reduplicates had a stylistic significance, fixed a high style. This conclusion is drawn on the basis of the fact that the synonyms of reduplicates in Armenian in the era of the Bible translation (V century AD) were used in folklore and historical works, that is, the translator used the reduplicates consciously, emphasizing the high importance of the Holy Scriptures. This is also indicated by comparisons of Armenian examples with reduplicates with corresponding examples from the original source and translations of the Bible into Latin, English, Old Bulgarian and German. This testifies to the fact that by the V century AD the Armenian language was not only finally formed, but also contained style awareness.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1164

    Language policy implementation challenges in postcolonial anglophone Africa: A case of Limpopo Provincial Legislature in South Africa

    by Shumani Eric Madima, Morris Thembani Morris Thembani Babane, Ernest Kwa Klu

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 70 Views, 58 PDF Downloads

    This paper sought to investigate the challenges that Limpopo Provincial Legislature encounters implement the language policy in a postcolonial Anglophone South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996, demands that each province should develop its own language policy (The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996). The Limpopo Provincial Legislature adopted its Language Policy, Act 7 of 2000, acknowledging Northern Sotho (Sepedi), Afrikaans, English, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, and IsiNdebele as the official languages. The Act provides more details on the use of official language in executive council meetings, in public communication and in service delivery. The main research question was to what are the challenges in the implementation of the language policy at Limpopo Provincial Legislature? The study employed qualitative research method and data collection tool that was utilized was semi-structured interview. The population of the study were all 48 Members of the Provincial Legislature (MPLs). Semi-structured interviews were conducted until saturation was reached after 13 (thirteen) members were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using Thematic Analysis (TA) technique where research questions were used as themes. The study’s main finding revealed that Limpopo Provincial Legislature is partially implementing the language policy since English remains the main language used in debates, engagements, and written documents above other official languages.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1171

    Articulatory characteristics and vowel space analysis of Mandarin Chinese non-low vowels in Korean-speaking learners

    by Di Duan

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 113 Views, 59 PDF Downloads

    Vowels are a fundamental component of Mandarin Chinese syllables. Accurate pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese relies on the distinct articulation of different vowels, especially the visually similar “ü” and “u”. Korean-speaking learners of Chinese Mandarin as a second language commonly exhibit non-standard pronunciation or errors in articulating “ü”, leading to confusion, particularly in non-low vowels centered around this sound. Using Praat to analyze the Formant values of non-low vowel sounds from six participants, a comparison between Korean L2 Chinese speakers and native Chinese speakers revealed vowel spaces differentiated through F2 values for /u/ and /o/, while /ɣ/ and /o/ are distinguished by F1 values. The sound similar to Korean “ㅟ” differs from /y/ in that the former is a gliding sound transitioning from low to high. The distinction between /y/ and /u/, /o/, /ɣ/ was found to be unclear, with /y/ often merging into sounds like “iu” and “io”. This aligns with historical vowel changes in Chinese “ü”, noted in previous linguistic studies, showing variations like “iu” and “io” over different periods. Korean L2 Chinese speakers tend to substitute /ɯ/ for /u/ and “ㅟ” (/ɯ/+/i/) for /y/, avoiding rounded lip movements in pronunciation, thus reducing effort and the need for additional phonemes. Furthermore, the F3 value for Korean L2 Chinese /y/ is notably lower, suggesting that the correct articulation should closely resemble the tongue position of /i/, combined with rounded lips.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1177

    Utilizing artificial intelligence tools for improving writing skills: Exploring Omani EFL learners’ perspectives

    by Mohammed Al-Raimi, Badri Abdulhakim Mudhsh, Yasir Al-Yafaei, Salim Al-Maashani

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 613 Views, 333 PDF Downloads

    The way that language is learned now needs to be innovative and creative due to changes in educational demands as a result of the unprecedented advancement in technology. Since artificial intelligence (AI) has become an integral part of education to support everyday tasks like teaching and learning languages, this study inspects the Omani EFL learners’ perceptions and practices towards utilizing artificial intelligence tools for enhancing their writing skills. To answer the research questions, a number of 61 students from the General Requirements Unit at the Preparatory Studies Centre, University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman, answered a 5-point Likert questionnaire. After analyzing the collected data statistically using SPSS (0.26), the results showed that Omani EFL students have positive perceptions towards utilizing artificial intelligence writing tools. The findings showed that translating words, phrases, and sentences is where Omani EFL students most frequently use AI tools. In order to verify spelling and grammar, they also employ AI techniques. The participants also report using AI writing tools to generate ideas for their writing and to assist them in composing essays and paragraphs. Findings showed that there were no significant differences between male and female students, and there was no correlation concerning the students’ perceptions and practices in utilizing AI tools. The study’s recommendations and implications were presented in accordance with this.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1184

    Impact of social media on the evolution of English semantics through linguistic analysis

    by Yu Shen

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 117 Views, 107 PDF Downloads

    Social media (SM) influences social interaction in the age of digital media, impacting how languages develop. Since these networks play a role in daily life, they create new words and conceptual frameworks that define our contemporary society. The current investigation investigates Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit SM posts applying textual extraction. The seven-year temporal sample demonstrates significant semantic change caused by society and technology. The analysis notices the importance of new words, phrase meaning evolving, and sentiment changes in SM users’ English usage, proving their adaptability. The growing popularity of phrases like eavesdropping and doom-scrolling indicated how SM and daily life impact. This investigation distinguishes each platform’s unique linguistic features and digital developments by understanding language flow and leading research in the future.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1182

    Voices across borders: Exploring linguistic and national identity among Ukrainian expatriates in Tallinn

    by Valeriia Stelmakova, Anastassia Zabrodskaja

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 117 Views, 59 PDF Downloads

    This article aims to understand how Ukrainian expatriates maintain their sense of national identity in light of the ongoing war in their home country. It seeks to identify specific cultural, linguistic, and social practices employed to preserve national identity. Additionally, this study explores the impact of the full-scale invasion on expatriates’ national identity and their practices. Furthermore, the study aims to investigate how the full-scale war has affected the attitudes and language usage of respondents with different linguistic backgrounds. Through the lenses of Social Identity Theory and concepts such as identity, its connection with culture and language, and national identity, the study’s findings were analysed. The primary tool utilised in this research was the semi-structured individual interview, specifically tailored to grasp the perception of identity, interpret practices, and uncover the underlying reasoning among the expats. The findings indicate that Ukrainian young adults exhibit strong cultural, social, and linguistic practices that aid in maintaining their national identity, with a particular emphasis on the civil component of national identity. The full-scale invasion has heightened the salience and strength of Ukrainian expatriates’ national identity and practices. Additionally, the study shows that the invasion has contributed to a positive shift in attitudes toward and increased usage of the Ukrainian language. The study highlights the significance of maintaining national identity among expatriates and emphasizes the growing understanding of the importance of national identity and the significance of its defining traits.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1167

    An acoustic study of Jonglish Community: Javanese-accented speech

    by Sukma Nur Ardini, Sunarya

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 127 Views, 57 PDF Downloads

    People who speak English with a Javanese accent are referred to as Jonglish (Jowo-English) speakers. They end their sentences in a high tone, therefore, the aims of this study were to compare the intensity and pitch of Javanese accent speakers (specifically from Pekalongan, Semarang, and Pati) with native speakers. The focus was on investigating whether the high tone at the end of sentences affects the engaging nature of the conversation. It employed descriptive qualitative design and included data collection, acoustic analysis, perception analysis, linguistic analysis, and interpretation. The data were collected by audio recording in the form of sentences. Praat, a voice analysis, was utilized to analyze the data. The findings demonstrated that Pekalongan and Semarang speakers had higher pitch than native speaker (232.25 Hz and 206.27 Hz). Meanwhile, the pitch score for Pati was lower than native; 192.04 Hz. On the other hand, the intensity from those regions were lower than native speaker; 69.58 dB, 61.51 dB, and 68.203 dB, while the of native speaker was 71.306 dB. The fact that the Jonglish includes a tendency to end sentences with a high tone suggests a particular intonation pattern. Despite these variations, effective communication often relies on contextual cues and the listeners ability to adapt to different speech patterns. The study has the potential to make meaningful contributions to English pronunciation instruction, cultural awareness, and effective cross-cultural communication. The outcomes of the research can inform pedagogical practices and support the broader goal of promoting linguistic diversity in English language education.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1176

    The interaction between language identity, pedagogy, and the effects on indigenous languages (Urdu and Sindhi): A case study of undergraduate institutes of Sindh, Pakistan

    by Habibullah Pathan, Ghadah Al Murshidi, Shazia Ayyaz, Illahi Bakhsh, Urooj Fatima Alvi

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 174 Views, 57 PDF Downloads

    The purpose of the article is to examine the correlation between language and identity, as well as the influence of English language instruction in Pakistan on Pakistani linguistic identities. While English language learners use a variety of teaching and learning strategies, they also come from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds and have varied learning objectives. The data collection involved two hundred undergraduates from each of the two campuses of the University of Sindh, one located in Jamshoro and the other in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. Additionally, interviews were conducted with five English language instructors who were all affiliated with the University of Sindh. Qualitative methods were utilized by the researcher for this investigation. The researcher employed two survey questionnaires, one for teachers and one for students, as a crucial tool for data gathering. The findings of the article demonstrate that language plays a significant role in expressing one’s social or personal identity, serving as a single characteristic of language usage for identification. Moreover, the article also examined the influence of English on two Pakistani languages, Urdu and Sindhi. Following the acquisition of English language skills, individuals may perceive changes in their level of competence, communication style, and value systems. The inclination towards code-mixing in public discourse can be attributed to the English language, as Pakistanis are highly conscious of their social status and aspire to appear well-educated.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1179

    Increasing undergraduate student interpreters’ fluency and accuracy in interpreting STEM content

    by Judy Vesel, Ashley Greene, Sean Hauschildt, M. Diane Clark

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 90 Views, 56 PDF Downloads

    Interpreters who are skilled in interpreting science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content fluently and accurately are few and far between. This issue is particularly true at the post-secondary level. Those interpreters who are available often do not have command of the vocabulary needed to interpret more specialized content and rely heavily on letter-for-letter fingerspelling and word-for-word transliteration. This project looked at the knowledge of the principles of fingerspelling on undergraduate student interpreters’ ability to interpret typical introductory biology lecture material accurately and fluently. Research involved modifying a signing bioscience dictionary (SBD), developing life science content summaries, creating videos of fingerspelling principles, and conducting an evaluation. Key findings showed participants’ knowledge of bioscience vocabulary was significantly improved with use of the SBD and that their ability to interpret typical biology lecture material fluently and accurately improved. After watching the videos and learning to apply the principles of fingerspelling, their fingerspelling scores also improved significantly. However, there was no significant improvement in biology content knowledge.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1170

    Learning achievement in purposive communication of ESL college students: A blended learning approach

    by Marlon S. Pontillas

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 269 Views, 172 PDF Downloads

    With the ongoing studies of blended learning in different areas, the study contrasts blended learning with online classes by analyzing pre/post-test scores, grades, and activity scores, indicating blended learning might offer superior outcomes. Additionally, it explores college students’ experiences in a blended learning class, providing insights into its effectiveness and areas for improvement. Participants are engineering students from Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges, Camarines Sur, Philippines, which includes 45 participants for each group (controlled and experimental groups). The study was based on a triangulation approach of integrating Independent Samples T-test and Multiple Regression Analysis for quantitative data and semi-structured interviews for qualitative insights. Accordingly, certain activities were crucial in improving non-verbal communication, persuasive writing, and research skills that led to confidence build-up and improved students’ performances. Narrative descriptions give more enlightening information about boosted confidence and better presentation competence due to better communication skills. Writing skills go a long way in improving students’ academic achievement, and Research and writing practices are essential skills that help students achieve higher grades. Integrating the qualitative narratives and quantitative results adds credibility to the study since it gives a different perspective on the blended learning environment. The recommendations to instructors and instructional designers call for blending unique instruction methods, multimedia content, and individualized feedback options. It is also advised to make pedagogical revisions for less impactful activities and provide customized exercises to build student confidence. Finally, this study illustrates the transformative capabilities of blended learning to enhance ESL teaching practice. The insights deepen pedagogue practices and broadly contribute to ongoing discussions around effective ESL education strategies toward better learning.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1256

    Students’ attitudes on the importance of reading habits as a vital factor for L2 development: An example from higher education practice

    by Mirela Müller, Mirjana Matea Kovač

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 72 Views, 63 PDF Downloads

    Recent scientific research has emphasized that reading fluency is an important component of foreign language learning. The long-term goal of foreign language learning is directed towards reading prosody, fluency, and comprehension. The research was conducted among undergraduate students of German studies at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Split from May to the end of June 2022. The research examined students’ attitudes on the frequency of using paired reading techniques, as well as the differences regarding the application of reading techniques in language and literature courses. The results of the research show that the majority of students believe that the paired reading technique can help in the development of reading habits in a foreign language, in the acquisition of new vocabulary, as well as in the development of reading fluency.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1160

    Facing emergency remote language teaching: The attitudes and competences of future EFL teachers

    by Francisco Javier Palacios-Hidalgo, Cristina A. Huertas-Abril

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 53 Views, 61 PDF Downloads

    The COVID-19 or Coronavirus health emergency brought about disruptions that highlighted the need to adapt education, especially language education, to secure students’ learning process. In this light, new terms, such as Emergency Remote Language Teaching, arose to differentiate ‘traditional’ online education from what was done in classrooms when schools were closed during the pandemic. Teachers directed their efforts to guarantee the continuity of students’ learning, which has been reflected in the increase in the number of studies examining how they have coped with this situation. In relation to the teaching and learning of English, however, there is limited research, up to the researchers’ knowledge, that explores whether teachers feel prepared to teach in Emergency Remote Language Teaching situations. Therefore, this paper studies the attitudes of Spanish future teachers of English concerning their readiness and abilities for Emergency Remote Language Teaching situations. Findings show that participants have positive attitudes towards adapting content to Emergency Remote Language Teaching, giving appropriate feedback, and selecting proper assessment methods. Moreover, they consider their training at university has been appropriate. Finally, recommendations to include strategies for Emergency Remote Language Teaching in teacher training syllabi are provided.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1227

    An analysis of phenomena of consonant substitution and strategies for development for Cantonese EFL elementary learners: A case study

    by Xiaoxin Chen

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 84 Views, 57 PDF Downloads

    The present study focuses on the phenomena of consonant substitution and strategies for remediation or development for Cantonese primary school students in China. 8 students from the graduating classes of Dongguan Haide Bilingual School were randomly selected as participants, of whom the pronunciation samples were collected after finishing the optional course (fun reading) which lasted for 15 weeks. Focusing on segmental features (consonant substitutions), each audio was recorded by computer, followed by analyzing transcriptions, marking pronunciation errors, and categorizing error types. The result presented that the pronunciation of letters th, pronunciation of the initial consonant cluster and the final consonant cluster, pronunciation of the letter l, substitution of voiceless consonant for the corresponding voiced consonant, substitution of phonemes /w/ for /v/ and /r/ and confusion between phonemes /n/ and /m/ were the common types of errors in consonant substitution of learners in primary school on English learning. By analyzing the phenomena of consonant substitution in the English pronunciation of specific primary school students in Guangdong and exploring its developmental strategies, this paper attempts to provide predictable focus and teaching guidance for primary school English teachers, aiming at exploring and innovating English pronunciation teaching methods, stimulating students’ learning interest and promoting the development of primary school English language teaching (ELT).

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1145

    Researching Ibn Muhanna’s dictionary in terms of linguistic features

    by Khuraman Asgarova

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 60 Views, 36 PDF Downloads

    In many linguistic studies, many studies have been conducted on the work “Hilyetü’l-insan” and “Halbetü’l-lisan”, which was mentioned as Ibn Muhanna’s Dictionary, whose real name was revealed when the Istanbul copy was found, and which belongs to Jamaladdin Ibn Muhanna. In the middle of the century, the Persian, Turkic and Mongolian languages gained influence and were widely used in Iraq as well as in the entire Elkhanid territory. Ibn Muhenna wrote his dictionaries “Hilyetü’l-insan” and “Halbetü’l-lisan” in this scientific environment. It is estimated that it was written in Meraga or Baghdad in the second half of the century. Despite the fact that the official language of the Elkhanid state is Turkic, Ibn Muhanna wrote his work in Arabic based on the main features of these three languages, considering that Arabic, Persian and Mongolian languages are also used in cultural, administrative, commercial and public life. According to the Istanbul copy of the introduction and the three-part dictionary, pages 5–111 were devoted to Persian, pages 113–310 to Turkic, and pages 311–371 to Mongolian. The part of the work related to the Persian language consists of an introduction and twenty-eight chapters where general grammatical rules are explained. In this research study, we will try to compare the linguistic features of Ibn Muhanna’s Dictionary.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1130

    Societal narratives in a Vietnamese rap song

    by Tran Ngoc Bao Chau, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh, Phuong Hoang Yen, Pham Trut Thuy, Le Thanh Thao

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 128 Views, 61 PDF Downloads

    This study explores the cultural and moral narratives in the contemporary Vietnamese rap song “Nau an cho em” by Den Vau. The research employs a corpus-based linguistic analysis to dissect the song’s lyrics, uncovering themes and messages that resonate with broader societal issues in Vietnam. The analysis reveals four key themes: the resilience and hope of children in Vietnam’s mountainous regions, the empowerment through education and self-improvement, the juxtaposition of natural beauty with hard realities, and the portrayal of community and collective identity. These themes highlight the song’s portrayal of the challenges faced by marginalized communities, the transformative power of education, and the importance of communal support and unity. The study demonstrates how contemporary Vietnamese music, particularly Den Vau’s work, transcends entertainment to offer profound insights into social commentary and moral reflection. It underscores the role of music as a medium for cultural expression and societal discourse in contemporary Vietnam.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1118

    Effects of exposure to L2 input and language proficiency on pragmatic competence during study abroad

    by Xi Yang, Nooreiny Maarof

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 109 Views, 50 PDF Downloads

    Developing second language pragmatic competence is crucial because it enables learners to effectively communicate and interact with native speakers of that language. It goes beyond mere grammatical and lexical knowledge, and encompasses the ability to comprehend and produce language in a way that is contextually appropriate and respectful. The quantitative study and group interviews were conducted to investigate the effects of exposure to L2 input and language proficiency on the comprehension and expression of indirect speech acts of 180 Chinese learners of English in Malaysia. The results showed that exposure to L2 input significantly contributed to learners’ pragmatic competence at all levels; interactive and instructive exposure to L2 input was more beneficial to the pragmatic improvement; pragmatic competence did not develop in parallel with language proficiency, and increased significantly only after language proficiency reached the intermediate level; pragmatic expression was more influenced by exposure to L2 input, while pragmatic comprehension was more significantly influenced by language proficiency.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1146

    Interlingual relations as a main factor in mutually enriching languages

    by Rzayeva Nuriyya Asgar, Sabina Almammadova Mammad

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 68 Views, 28 PDF Downloads

    There are both reasonable and unjustified ideas in the assumptions and theories about the root commonality in languages of different systems. In this work presented to the readers, special attention is paid to the analysis of the right and wrong aspects of those ideas. Because the contradictions themselves are very important to reveal the truth. Later, in order to eliminate the difficulty in understanding the comparison of roots, it was considered appropriate to provide information about the structure and formation of the genetic roots of the Azerbaijani language itself. This work also analyzes the commonality of monosyllabic roots and words with root-formative composition, as well as parallelisms and motivational similarities. In this analysis, the latest sources of linguistics were used and analyzes and comparisons were made. The mutual development of languages is the reflection of interlingual interaction. The cooperation of nations and peoples affects primarily their language. Conversion of the achievements of scientific and technological achievements into the common property of humanity, the mutual development of their cultural values, in the creation and development of mutually beneficial relations between languages as well as in literature.  In the process of its own historical development, the languages have been and continue to be in the process of mutual language interaction.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1192

    Development points of the derivation process related to Nakhchivan dialects and accents (based on written and oral literary and artistic examples)

    by Zulfiyya Ismayil

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 137 Views, 38 PDF Downloads

    In linguistics, the study of the characteristics of acquisition of dialects is of particular importance. In particular, the study of dialects based on written and oral literary examples plays an important role for research in this field. Until 1920, Azerbaijani dialects played a fundamental role in the development of the literary language of Azerbaijan. The role of dialects in enriching the lexicon of the literary language is irreplaceable. Thus, dialect words have become the source and base of the lexicon of the literary language. Now this process is going in another direction. In other words, the literary language affects dialects and changes them, creates conditions and grounds for the reduction and disappearance of the expressive function of dialect words. But for now, dialects remain as an independent language unit in the national language. As the literary language affects the dialects, their phonetic, grammatical systems and pronunciation rules also change. They lose their unique features and approach the literary language. The research article deals with the creation of words related to dialects in prose. Word formation of both suffixes is proved by selected examples from the literature. In conclusion, let’s note that word-forming affixes have more stylistic features in works written in spoken language, and their study is important from a philological aspect.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1187

    Translating metaphors in Chinese satirical literature: A foreignization approach

    by Dandan Tian, Muhammad Alif Redzuan bin Abdullah, Ling Yann Wong

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 73 Views, 47 PDF Downloads

    The paper delves into the complexities of translating metaphors in Chinese satirical literature, emphasizing the cultural and linguistic nuances involved. It highlights the importance of metaphors in expressing satire and the challenges posed by cultural differences between Chinese and English. The paper advocates for a foreignization translation approach to preserve the original’s cultural essence and satirical tone, balancing it with explanations to aid understanding in the target language. This method ensures the retention of literary value while facilitating cross-cultural dialogue and appreciation of the source culture’s literary aesthetics.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1189

    Comparative assessment of Bing Translator and Youdao Machine Translation Systems in English-to-Chinese literary text translation

    by Linli He, Mozhgan Ghassemiazghandi, Ilangko Subramaniam

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 99 Views, 69 PDF Downloads

    This study explores the performance of machine translation of literary texts from English to Chinese. The study compares two machine translation systems, Bing Translator and Youdao Machine Translation, using selected texts from the novel “Nineteen eighty-four” by George Orwell. The data collection includes the original source texts, their machine-generated translations by Bing Translator and Youdao Machine Translation, and comparisons with human reference translations to assess the performance of these systems. The research’s focal point is to evaluate the accuracy, fluency, and appropriateness of translations generated by these two machine translation systems, while also analyzing the post-editing effort required to enhance the quality of the final machine-translated product. The study revealed that despite the presence of flaws in both machine translation systems, Youdao Machine Translation demonstrated superior performance, especially in accurately translating technical terms and idiomatic expressions, making it the more effective option overall. Nevertheless, the translations from Youdao Machine Translation required more substantial post-editing efforts to improve fluency and readability. Conversely, Bing Translator yielded more fluent and natural-sounding translations, albeit with a need for improved accuracy in translating technical terms and idiomatic expressions. The study concludes that while machine translation systems are capable of generating reasonable translations for literary texts, human post-editing remains essential to ensure the final output’s accuracy, fluency, and appropriateness. The study underscores the importance of selecting the appropriate machine translation system based on the nature of the text being translated. It also highlights the critical role of post-editing in refining the quality of machine-translated outputs, suggesting that while machine translation can provide a solid foundation, human intervention is indispensable for achieving optimal accuracy, fluency, and overall readability in literary translations.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1168

    The strategies of using Chinese language in cosmetic advertising through the Taobao online marketplace

    by Chatuwit Keawsuwan, Benjamaporn Ruechai, Pantipa Chanpeng

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 104 Views, 66 PDF Downloads

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the information structure of texts concerning facial beauty in Chinese cosmetics advertisements, and 2) examine linguistic strategies employed within the advertisements. Language strategies in 150 Chinese cosmetic product advertisements from Taobao were analyzed, employing critical discourse analysis concepts as proposed by Norman Fairclough and Teun Adrianus van Dijk. By exploring the advertising language, the study offered valuable insights into the persuasive techniques used in the cosmetics industry. It categorized the strategies into semantic and discourse-pragmatic. Semantic strategies involved descriptive verbs, intensifiers, negation, and word formation through pinyin transliteration. Discourse-pragmatic strategies included presuppositions, figures of speech, claims, and rhetorical questions. These strategies mirrored beauty values in Chinese society, implying beauty was achievable through the products advertised. The study highlighted the significant impact of language strategies in forming beauty ideals, influencing consumer beliefs, and motivating the pursuit of beauty standards. This analysis of cosmetic advertising in China showcased the influential role of language in shaping societal views and consumer behavior.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1183

    University students’ perspectives on online English language learning: Implications for Ecuadorian educators

    by Jardel Coutinho Santos, Badie Anneriz Cerezo-Segovia, Gabriel Brito Amorim, María Lorena Estupiñán Lince, Gustavo Vinicio Monge García, Cristopher David Herrera Navas, Oswaldo Paul Vera Mendoza

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 169 Views, 55 PDF Downloads

    Online education has mainly been at the core of discussions after Latin America’s Covid-19 sanitary crisis started in March 2020. Teachers and institutions have explored different ways to face what is now called “the new normal”. This study aims to identify the perspectives of Ecuadorian university students on online English language learning in order to inform the design of strategies that allow improvements in the teaching process. This quantitative study was carried out at a university in Ecuador and encompassed 4.936 participants from different majors. An online questionnaire was administered for data collection and analyzed through the application of neural networks. The results showed that students perceive learning English online positively and that their greatest strengths are in listening and writing, while their difficulties lie in developing their reading and speaking abilities. This suggests that more attention should be given to the development of reading and speaking strategies in an attempt to fill the gap that students indicated while answering the questionnaire. Some directions in that regard are given in the conclusion.

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  • Open Access

    Article

    Article ID: 1188

    Phonological variation and linguistic diversity in Bangladeshi dialects: An exploration of sound patterns and sociolinguistic significance

    by Mohammad Mustafizur Rahman, Binoy Barman, Liza Sharmin, Md. Rafiz Uddin, Sakiba Binte Yusuf, Ushba Rasool

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 249 Views, 75 PDF Downloads

    This paper explores how people in different parts of Bangladesh talk differently from each other. The study pays special attention to the unique sounds in their dialects compared to the standard Bangla language. The main goal of the research is to understand why these sounds change from one dialect to another. The researchers collected data from 70 participants coming from 20 regions of Bangladesh, who were fluent in their regional dialects and studied it carefully. By employing semi-structured interviews, IPA transcription, and thorough verification processes, this study ensures the accuracy and reliability of its findings and discussion, contributing valuable insights into the phonological diversity of Bangladeshi dialects and their socio-linguistic significance. The authors found 13 phonological variations or patterns among the dialects of different regions of Bangladesh. Each type of change is explained with clear examples to make it easier to understand. The research contributes significantly to the understanding of socio-linguistic diversity in Bangladesh by providing experimental evidence of phonological variation and its determinants. It also lays the groundwork for future research on dialects and their relationship with the standard language. This study will bring up a greater appreciation for Bangladesh’s linguistic diversity and encourage further research into language variation and change.

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  • Open Access

    Review

    Article ID: 1174

    Analyzing the contribution of WhatsApp in enhancing English writing skills among undergraduate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners: A systematic review

    by Shugufta Khurram, Sarala Thulasi Palpanadan, Zulfiquar Ali Chachar

    Forum for Linguistic Studies, Vol.6, No.2, 2024; 115 Views, 81 PDF Downloads

    Social media is becoming a more active and accessible medium for learners all around the world to acquire the English language. A growing body of study is examining how people learn and use language in the digital age, and one such area of study is social media-based English language learning. This systematic review of the literature aims to provide an overview of social media, specifically WhatsApp, as a tool for learning English writing skills in existing literature. This review maps the experiences of learners with learning outcomes related to writing skills as they relate to WhatsApp. To examine the literature that was accessible for the study, a systematic review was conducted. This systematic review complies with the statement of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. The review procedure included a thorough search of electronic databases like Web of Science, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus. The research articles, which were published between 2013 and 2022 were included in the search. The purpose of this systematic research is to investigate WhatsApp Messenger’s potential to help undergraduate EFL learners improve their writing skills. The review gives a summary of the body of research on the use of WhatsApp for writing instruction, including studies examining the app’s possible benefits for undergraduate EFL learners’ writing skills. Out of n = 90 research studies n = 20 research studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Among all those 20 studies, researchers adopted ( n = 13; 65%) quantitative research methodology. According to the results of this systematic review, WhatsApp gained popularity among researchers in 2019 and 2021, and at that time, there were more studies conducted. The country-wise context of the research studies revealed that Saudi Arabia ( n = 4; 20%) has made a significant contribution to the body of studies in which it was discovered that WhatsApp is a highly useful learning tool for improving the writing abilities of undergraduate EFL learners. Future research should explore WhatsApp’s impact on enhancing English writing skills among undergraduate EFL learners, considering diverse contexts and instructional strategies. Educators are encouraged to integrate WhatsApp for group projects, create engaging online environments, and continuously assess teaching methods. Additionally, research could investigate educators’ perspectives on WhatsApp-based approaches and explore the role of other social media tools, like Instagram, YouTube, and Facebook, in enhancing various English language skills.

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Important notice: FLS transferred to Bilingual Publishing Group

2024-04-17

The ownership of Forum for Linguistic Studies (ISSN: 2705-0610 (Print), 2705-0602 (Online)) has been transferred from Academic Publishing Pte. Ltd. to Bilingual Publishing Group.

Bilingual Publishing Group will publish this journal from Volume 6, Issue 3 (2024). Starting from 17 April 2024, please make new submissions via Bilingual Publishing’s journal system. For tracking the publication progress of previous submissions, authors should still visit the former website of FLS.

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